The issue of race has been played down since amalgamation of 1914. As a result, most of us, Nigerians do not know and those who know would not talk about the fact that two races - Negros and Negroids, were compelled to live together after the amalgamation of Northern and Southern Nigeria.
Race has always been and is still a factor in Nigeria. Lugard in his Report of 1919 described the Negro South-East as mostly pagans, “held in thrall by Fetish worship and the hideous ordeals of witchcraft, human sacrifice and twin murder”. “The Kingdom of Benin like its counterpart in Dahomey (now Republic of Benin) had up to 1897 groaned “under a despotism which reveled in holocausts of human victims for its fetish rites. Further West the Yorubas, Egbas, and Jebus had evolved a fairly advanced system of Government under recognized rulers.” With respect to the North, he wrote “From a very early date the influence of Islam had made itself felt in the North, and the religious revival of the early years of the nineteenth century had formed the motive for the Fulani conquests, which swept the country from Sokoto in the north-west to Yola, 1, 000 miles to the East, and from the Sahara to the confines of the Equatorial Belt. The social and religious organization of the Koran supplemented, and combined with, the pre-existing, and probably advanced, from of tribal administration handed down from the powerful Songhay Empire, which had extended from Chad to Timbuktu. The courts were served by judges erudite in Moslem law and fearless in its impartial application. The system of taxation was highly developed, and the form of Administration highly centralized.” [pg. 56] The North, here, meant the Negroids - Hausa, Fulani and Kanuri etc, not the Negros of the North, who were very much like their Southern counterparts, I would say, Southern “brothers”. Colonialism had its good points such as establishing Western education, the banning of slave trade, etc, in addition to providing an order that stopped inter-tribal wars, twin murders and conflicts. However, colonialism provided for “minority” rule with racial bias first by white colonizers and later by the Negroid Emirs from whom the colonialists took power. Racism was accepted as legitimate, a period after slave trade and one is ashamed to say that racism is still practiced in Nigeria especially by our present rulers.
The main reasons for amalgamation were:
(a) to stop the British Treasury from subsidizing Northern Nigeria;
(b) to make the two Nigerias to have one railway policy; and
(c) to provide minority rule by the few colonial masters to manage the whole of Nigeria. To have one man on the spot rather than two men on the spot.
Social scientists hold the view (which I share), that cultural factors explain modernization, political democratization, military strategy, the behavior of ethnic groups and the alignment and antagonisms among countries. This appears to be the case of Nigeria and also explains the difference in attitude concerning Democracy by the majority Negros and the minority Negroids.
At independence, even though there were constitutional conferences and an agreement on parliamentary democracy as the form of government of independent Nigeria, the racial divide between the Negros and Negroids was ignored. The Negros essentially pagans, most of whom converted to Christianity therefore accepted democracy that was agreed upon. The Negroids on the other hand, who were mostly Muslims (with British anointed Emirs) decided to transform Sharia as an alternative source of legislation. It is this transformation that has made it very difficult to forge a Nigerian Nation, the consequences of our country Nigeria with two systems Democracy and Sharia paid for by the Democrats – the Negros.
Both the British and the Negroids held the view that Western education was not meant for Negros because “despite their very limited education, the educated Negroids exercise a deplorable influence over the native tribes” said Goldie, which explains present day Boko Haram in Nigeria. Western education is a sacrilege.
The Man on the Spot and Democracy
The man on the spot for Nigeria was Lord Lugard, who enjoyed tremendous fame. The man on the spot is the designation given to a “colonial superstar” by Whitehall. He was born in 1858, attended public school in Lancashire. He ended up “in the Army and after eight months at Royal Military College at Sandhurst”, was sent to Afghanistan in 1878, he had served in Uganda, Afghanistan and India before coming to Nigeria. It was in Nigeria that Lugard found his vocation. In 1900, Lugard was appointed High Commissioner of Northern Nigeria. He married Flora Shaw in 1902, a journalist of The Times who gave Nigeria its name in her article of 1897, Lugard had very strong views about Nigeria. He was committed to the British Empire and to British supremacy. “It is very easy to discover what Lugard thought about the empire because, in his retirement, he was one of the most prolific authors and theorists of imperialism. He coined the phrase ‘dual mandate’ in the colonies, which simply recognized that the colonial powers, particularly Britain, had not colonized Africa and Asia merely through philanthropy. One part of the mandate was to make money, the second part was to develop the colonies for the benefit of the indigenous peoples 0themselves. It was quite a neat formula which suggested that both the subject (peoples) and the imperial power could benefit from colonialism: ‘Let it be admitted at the outset that European brains, capital and energy have not been and never will be, expended in developing the resources of Africa from motives of pure philanthropy; that Europe is in Africa for the benefit of her own industrial classes, and of the native races in their progress to a higher plane.” [pg. 289] The Negroid Emirs benefitted immensely from colonial rule at the expense of the majority of native Negroids. This explains why after independence in 1960, Nigerian Negroids who controlled Federal Government continued the “Nigerian System” of administration where the British left - Northern Land System, Northern Security and Intelligence, Northern Armed Forces which ensured that the leadership cadre was composed mainly of Negroids as the worthy successors of the white British colonialists.
In June 1912, the Colonial Secretary, Lord Harcourt from whom Port Harcourt derived its name, announced to the House of Commons the new “man on the spot’s” proposal for Nigeria in terms seldom used in the House of Common for any public servant thus: “Northern Nigeria is in the truest sense the product of his (Lugard) foresight and genius. He reclaimed it from the unknown; he gave it a legal code, differing only in its civilization from the essential lines of native customs; he established a land system which, combining altruism with revenue, may well be a model and inspiration to other Protectorates --- I am sending him, so far as I am concerned, with a free hand to examine the situation as to its developments since his last visit; to plan and to organize the amalgamation, to examine the administration, the financial, and the commercial possibilities, and then to return here and to discuss with me the problems of the future. --- He knew his Northern Nigeria; the summer would suffice for him to master on paper all he did not know of the Southern part. --- To conclude this satisfying list, he was to have his brother to work with him in the specially created post of Political Secretary.” [pg. 9] It can be said that Nigeria is truly a “made by colonialism” country that is presently being haunted by the ghost of colonialism.
However, it is necessary to point out that Lugard retired in 1919 and was unpopular in the South as reflected in articles and editorials of the Lagos Press, which included the “nefarious Nigeria system i.e. the indirect rule introduced by Lugard in the North, the proposal to abandon Lagos and transfer the capital of Nigeria to Kaduna.” It was rumored then that Lugard was planning to make the Northern Nigeria land proclamation applicable to the South so that all land in Nigeria will be vested in the Crown. He was accused of proposing the installation of mental slavery, for an alleged plan to curb the educational genius of the South.
The Negroid North, on the other hand, regarded Lugard and the indirect rule with nostalgia. The Sardauna of Sokoto at a dinner party said “It was on the 1st January, 1900, a significant date, that the British government took over from the Royal Niger Company and established the Protectorate of Northern Nigeria under that distinguished leader of men, Sir Frederick Lugard who was the first High Commissioner. Two protectorates were formed, that of Northern and Southern Nigeria. Later in 1912, Lord Lugard returned from the Far East and, two years later, united the two protectorates to form the Colony and protectorate of Nigeria. In Northern Nigeria, the next twenty-five years was a period of steady and gradual development. --- When the British, under Lord Lugard, occupied the Northern Region at the turn of the century, he found already in existence strong natural rulers with a highly developed form of government and administration established by the Fulani Empire. These rulers were, and are, called ‘emirs’. They already possessed administrative machinery, advisory councils to assist them in their work of government and established courts, carefully administering the Muslim legal code: they had, in fact, much of the basic system of modern local government already in existence. Lord Lugard realized the value of such a responsible system which really functioned, and decided to base his administration on the emirate system, with British officials acting as advisors to the emirates. The emirates became, in turn, the Native Authorities. This system of administration, which was that of a government agent working through a competent and traditional local authority, has been recognized by students of colonial administration as the classic example of indirect rule. Much has been written on this subject and much remains to be written. It is a fascinating and rewarding subject for research workers. A brilliant analysis of the system has been carried out by your distinguished scholar, James Coleman. [Sir Ahmadu Bello Sardauna of Sokoto, Selected Speeches and Quotes 1953 – 1966 pgs. 73 - 74]
It was very clear that the hostility between Northern and Southern Provinces expatriates up to 1932, attracted a quip that “if all Nigerians had withdrawn from the country, there would have been a civil war between these two groups of Europeans.” This was the ghost which colonialism left us with, cultural hatred and supremacy of religion, disregard for human rights, under the doctrine that humans have no right, that kings and a pauper were both predestined from above. These are some of the issues that need to be reconciled at a Truth and Reconciliation Commission and a new Constitution produced.
The Two Races of Nigeria (Negros and Negroids)
The Negroids, as a result of Islam, had always worked under a united banner of one (culture) Islam while the Negros (although better educated), relied on their tribes in confrontation with the Negroids who, over the years and with the support of the man on the spot, Lord Lugard presented a formidable opponents.
It is very clear that the definition by Lugard himself suggest that the Arab Fulani, Hausa and the Kanuris are the Negroids of Nigeria. The Nation of September 30, 2018 in an article titled Travails of Nigeria’s minority Arab tribe, wrote in part: “About half a million Arabs are indigenous to Nigeria, having settled in the Northeast of the country for the past 300 years. Centuries later, their features, culture, language and origin remain Arabic, something that has ironically impeded their integration. --- for many Arabs in the North East, often referred to as Baggara or Shuwa Arabs. --- Come rain or anything, we have no place to go. It’s only in Bornu that we are fully accepted as Nigerians. --- We occupy three local governments in Bornu State. We are a minority within the minority. While we have some recognition in Bornu State, in Nigeria as a whole, especially in the Southern part, most people see us as foreigners. --- He said the high point was the killing of General Mohammad Shuwa, a Nigerian Arab. He said the Kanuri dominate Boko Haram leadership and membership, adding that the Nigerian Arabs are caught between “prevailing pains, terror and ceaseless wars. Since Shuwa was killed, their voices have been greatly silenced.”
Sheikh Abubakar Gumi wrote concerning his Negroid race: “Looking back at it, one can say that in a way all of us had been individually affected by our stay in Sudan. Personally, I count the time as the first close training I had in Arab life and culture. I was able to understand the Arab social world and situate it within the context of my Islamic reading. But above all, the Sudanese way of life influenced my taste in clothing. It was in the Sudan that I learnt to appreciate simple and functional clothes, as against very conspicuous and expensive ones. --- An incident that is to remain with us for the rest of ourselves was the Hajj we performed in our final year in 1955. It was the first time we all visited the holy land, as we could not have by any imagination been able to save the £200 required to make the Hajj by return flight from Kano. We travelled from Khartoum by rail to the port of Suakin. From there the return fare to Jeddah across the Red Sea was £13. As luck would have it, we were met there by a team of Northern Nigerian politicians who had also come to perform the Hajj, on their way from a meeting in London. They comprised the Sardauna, Ahmadu Bello, Tafawa Balewa, Makaman Bida, Aliyu Ribadu an Isa Kaita. We were very glad to see them and ask about home and such other details as we fancied which cheer us considerably.” [Where I Stand Sheikh Abubakar Gumi with Ismaila A. Tsiga pgs. 68 – 69]
The question of race becomes relevant when we analyze the statement of Felix Houphouet-Boigny. Daniel T. Manguelle wrote: “everywhere on the continent, the bond between religion and society remains strong. As Felix Houphouet-Boigny, the late president of the Ivory Coast, told us (and he, as a Roman Catholic, knew what he was talking about): From African Archbishops to the most insignificant Catholic, from the great witch doctor to the most insignificant Moslem, from the Pastor to the most insignificant Protestant, we have all had an animist past.” [Culture Matters, Lawrence E. Harrison & Samuel P. Huntington, pg. 67]
The author continued “African culture is not easily grasped. It refuses to be packaged and resist attempts at systemization, the quoted statement is not wholly satisfactory but it gives some sense of what the Africa culture of the Negro really is”. One can say Negroids because an Africa Negroid anywhere, South of the Mediterranean Sea, the Madagascar can say that they have no animist past. If they do, they are stating the fact that Islam is over 1,400 years since the Prophet SAW. This is what I submit, is responsible for the unity of Negroids in Nigeria – Fulani, Hausa, Kanuri and Arabs in Nigeria. Muslims and Christians in Negro families tolerate one another irrespective of religion because they all have an animist past, but this does not seem to apply to the Negroids. Therefore for Nigeria to be united, the two cultures need restructuring especially here in Nigeria.
It is our failure, I submit, to understand and appreciate this fact concerning race that is mainly responsible for the lack of unity between the Negros and Negroids in Nigeria. This attitude of Negroid Nigerians towards Negros, between Negroids and traditional religion are very clear and unforgiving:
“Sura 9: Ultimatum (Barã’ah)  An ultimatum is herein issued from GOD and His messenger to the idol worshipers who enter into a treaty with you;  Therefore, roam the earth freely for four months, and know that you cannot escape from GOD, and that GOD humiliates the disbelievers;  A proclamation is herein issued from GOD and His messenger to all the people on the great day of pilgrimage, that GOD has disowned the idol worshipers, and so did His messenger. Thus, if you repent, it would be better for you. But if you turn away, then know that you can never escape from GOD. Promise those who disbelieve a painful retribution; and  The Jews said, “Ezra is the son of GOD," while the Christians said, “Jesus is the son of GOD!” These are blasphemies uttered by their mouths. They thus match the blasphemies of those who have disbelieved in the past. GOD condemns them. They have surely deviated.” [majidtuson.org]
For the re-structuring of culture to take place the Muslim need to be flexible about what constitute slander such as non-Muslims interpreting the Quran in an age of internet.
In September 1957, a Commission was appointed by the Secretary of State to enquire into the fears of Minorities and the means of allaying them, with Henry Willink QC as Chairman. It had the following terms of reference:
- If, but only if, no other solution seems to the Commission to meet the case, then as a last resort to make detailed recommendations for the creation of one or more new States. and in that case:-
- To advise what safeguards should be included for this purpose in the Constitution of Nigeria.
- To ascertain the facts about the fears of minorities in any part of Nigeria and to propose means of allaying those fears whether well or ill founded.
- to specify the precise area to 'be included in such State or States;
- to recommend the Governmental and administrative structure most appropriate for it.
- to assess whether any State recommended would be viable from an economic and administrative point of view and what the effect of its creation would be on the Region or Regions from which it would be created and on the Federation.
4. To report its findings and recommendations to the Secretary of State for the Colonies.
The Commission arrived in Nigeria on the 23rd November 1957 and, between that date and 12th April, 1958, they held public sittings and had private meetings and the discussions in each region in Lagos and in the Southern Cameroons. Part of the fears of minorities in the North including Christians and Animists among others included the following:
- Fears regarding the future and hoped that the new Constitution would embody a statement on human rights which would give religious minorities the freedom to practices their religion and which would specifically lay down that there should be no obstacle to a person changing his religion;
- It was revealed that there where places Christians missions had difficulty getting permission to build Churches while Muslims could set up Mosques wherever they wished;
- That restrictions were placed unnecessarily on the sale of religious literatures and on permission to preach the gospel;
- That government was bringing pressure to bear on chiefs to change their religious allegiance and one of the chiefs concerned read a passage from the Quran outlining the attitude of Muslims to those who do not accept the faith of Islam; and
- Many witnesses expressed fears of Fulani-Hausa domination for which the commission proffered its meaning “it clearly implies a system of rule and of society of which an important ingredient is the operation of Muslim Law” which some witnesses have specifically referred to this system of law as an object of fear.”
In additional to the above, the principal fear expressed in the Northern region was that after independence, the more conservative tendencies called “the Northern system” will gain the upper hand, while recent moves in the direction of democracy will be abandoned together with the non-Muslims and all minorities which, at present, is a part of the NPC political philosophy; what is feared, in short, is a swing back towards Islamic conservatism and the autocratic rule of the Emirs.”
With the benefit of history and hindsight, the Zamfara Criminal Code of 1999 enacting criminal Sharia, as a result of which a Nigerian’s arm was amputated as punishment under Sharia and the flogging of women for committing adultery, showed that the above-mentioned fears were not only justified but also explain the impunity with which 12 State Governors enacted the Sharia Criminal Code.
In the above circumstances, the following conclusion can be drawn:
- That Sharia is firmly rooted in Islam’s doctrine, texts and favored by influential Islamic commentators, institutions and academic centres in Nigeria and the Middle East
- Sharia has been for some years lavishly financed and propagated by Muslims military leaders with oil money from the Niger Delta
- It would appear that Muslim leaders want to establish a universally recognized hierarchical authority with the Sultan, a kind of ‘Pope’ for Nigeria.
For the above reasons, Sharia has become a threat to Democracy and those charged with the defence of the Nigerian Constitution should not compound issues as, when, on Independence Day celebrations, the President said: “I want to assure you that as President, I will continue to work tirelessly to promote, protect and preserve what really matters: a united, peaceful, prosperous and secure Nigeria, where all, irrespective of background, can aspire to succeed, not the Constitution, which provides “I will, to the best of my ability, preserve, protect and defend the Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria.” What really matters cannot be substituted for the Constitution.
Handing over the baton from Buhari to Atiku cannot be the answer, in that it implies replacing conventional jihad for more stealth jihad. The only difference between the jihads is in the timing and tactics. Both Buhari and Atiku, as Muslims, believe in the global imposition of Sharia and strengthening/expand of the Islamic Caliphate which already exists in Nigeria.
Hausa Fulani as an Ideology
A system of rule and of society of which an important ingredient is the operation of Muslim law implies Sharia. At the public hearing of the Willink’s Commission, this was exposed and the Commission was very hopeful that the provision of human rights in the Constitution would make it difficult to ignore democracy and promote Sharia as an alternative source of legislation in competition with the Constitution. The Commission was mistaken as it has become very clear that to be part of the ruling elite one has to convert to Islam or become an agent of stealth jihad. Although the Negros were educated, yet they failed to examine or challenge what Sharia means and how it operates. As a result, the Negro Nigerians became victims of the consequences of Sharia.
The most unfortunate aspect - apart from better education, is the added fact that it was the Negro Nigerians that provided 90% of the funds used in the development of the country including Sharia, but the same people were unable to use this wealth to guarantee peace. The Negros were convinced that all Nigerians, see Nigeria as their country first before being Christians and Muslims.
The fact that most of the colonial officers were not all Christians, (some were atheists) led the Negro Nigerians into the erroneous impression that the British were in Nigeria to promote unity, rule of law and democracy. This misconception made the Negro Nigerians, then and now to be complacent about democracy which they took for granted. Lugard wrote “in the Northern Provinces, there has been a considerable extension of mission work in Pagan areas and the number of stations had increased from 38 in 1913 to 60 in 1917. The Church Missionary Society Mission with its headquarters at Zaria has been a source of some controversy with the Mohammedans. At the time of the conquest of the Mohammedan Emirates in 1903, I declared that the British Government would not interfere with the religion of the people, and ‘every man should be free to worship God as he chose’. The Emirs, though they have not been very consistent in the matter, no doubt, view with dislike and distrust, the efforts of Europeans to convert their people to Christianity, the more so that the administrative and judicial systems, and the social life of the people is to such a large extent based on the teaching of the Quran, and so intimately associated with religion, that the Emirs not unnaturally feared a weakening of their authority and a breakup of the social system if their religion is undermined. The Government, in these circumstances, has considered it right to be guided by the wishes of the Emirs and their councilors, who have given such abundant and striking proofs of their loyalty during the War, in which their co-religionist, Turkey, is opposed to us. While cordially recognizing mission activity in Pagan areas, the Government has desired to discourage propaganda in Moslem districts.” [Emphasis supplied] [Pg. 160] Apart from Lugard’s bias against the South and Christianity, unity between Muslims and Christians at the time posed a problem to the few colonial expatriates over a vast area of Nigeria. For “security reason” non-Western educated Muslims in the North – enhanced the policy of divide and rule, promoted and guided by the British. This negative policy seemed to have been entrenched in the psyche of some Negroid Nigerians to this day. They would rather have Muslims from the Middle East, Pakistan and Hindu Indians than Negros from the South. This discriminatory policy has continued to the present. The Negroids were able to achieve this feat because
- power was handed to them by the British
- they (the Negroids), were able to appoint Negros of their choice, outside their native leadership with whom they dealt with concerning governance.
The use of the terms Negros and Negroids are for identification only and it is not intended to promote racism. It is for better understanding of the Nigerian situation and why it has been very difficult to unite the Fulani, Hausa, Kanuri and Arabs with the rest of over 350 Negro ethnic nationalities in Nigeria. Willink’s definition of Fulani-Hausa also explains why many young officers in the Armed Forces who were Christians were encouraged to change to Islam because of the added advantage of becoming not only “Hausa” but also “Fulani”. The sky was the limit for such officers. The Negroids constitute one block in Nigerian politics, the Negros also should, in the circumstance, constitute another block to be able to checkmate Sharia (Negroids).
In a paper at the opening of the 2018/2019 Legal Year in Edo State, this presenter wrote under the heading of Stealth Takeover of Professional Organizations thus it was “the modus operandi of the jihad (both conventional and stealth) used to destroy professional organizations in Nigeria that made it possible for the Intelligence Services in the promotion of Sharia to take over these organizations. The Nigeria Bar Association was last in the “takeover” of professional organizations including the Medical Association, etc, that were taken over stealthily and Chief (Mrs.) Priscilla Kuye would not allow the Bar Association to be taken over without a fight. The Nigeria Bar Association, after this fracas, went into limbo for over three years before the new Association that was Sharia compliant came on board. The Bar, by its leadership position is the protector of the Judiciary and Human Rights of the people. In effect, September 1992 was the month and year when Sharia lawyers took over from the Common Law lawyers in Nigeria and thus began the steep decline of Nigeria in the comity of Nations.” Stealth jihad has compromised professional competence in all sectors of the Nigerian politics and economy.
Sharia Compliant Church
The Intelligence Service has a hold on all Christian denominations in Nigeria. The Churches cannot be said to have competence in politics, economy and military strategy and do not possess any particular training and experience in the intricacies of the practical application of these disciplines except the few professions that are also clerical. But the clergy, as teachers, have millions of students yet they resent professionals in the Church who try to draw their attention to issues such as jihad and its effect on Christianity. Such professionals will be declared persona non grata on the advice of the Intelligence Services. Most of the clergy in Nigeria today seem to have been compromised by the Intelligence Service to the extent that they take directives from them on what to say to their adherent Christians viz-a-vz Sharia, even as Christianity and Sharia are incompatible. They are told to preach the gospel that Sharia and Democracy are compatible, not withstanding jihads of Boko Haram, Fulani herdsmen who are openly opposed to Democracy. Our clergy provided the instrument for stealth jihad on this ground.
The Christian Elders have, over the last two decades, tried very hard to tell the clergy that the Nigerian Constitution of 1999 is a false document because it was prepared by a member of the Armed Forces under the influence of stealth jihad. Some understand the situation that democracy is being sabotaged, to be replaced by Sharia but because of the fear of being blackmailed by the charge of corruption or the advantages they enjoyed as the “political” arm of the military. When party politics was introduced, parties became an ad-hoc affair available only during election.
It is my hope that Negro politicians, who want to re-direct our country back to democracy, will examine the arguments in this paper and decide to promote permanent political parties, strengthen the legislature, provide civic education and political activities devoid of violence and corruption for our children. The fact that we have, since amalgamation and independence, not been able to live in peace is because the DNA of anti-democracy of the Negroids approve of violence and corruption as the means of conversion.
It is time we realized that corruption is being promoted simultaneously by the same people who levy accusation of corruption against non-Islamists. What went on during the recent primaries of the two major political parties makes a mockery of the fight against corruption. Pastors, Priests, Bishops, Archbishops, etc need to understand Sharia and its tenets etc so as not to be fooled that theocracy is possible in Nigeria of today. Our clergy need to ask pertinent questions why, since the amalgamation riots, fights, etc seem to be a way of life. The clergy needs to understand stealth jihad which made Christians to fight against Christians in the civil war of 1967 – 1970. The only “weapon” available to Christians now to stop this jihad is information and knowledge. Knowledge will stop stealth jihad perpetuated by those in authority either as a result of ignorance or fear which has been driven into us through conventional and stealth jihad. Stealth jihad was used by ISIS to enter Iraq and Syria and war and destruction later followed. We must not allow this to happen in our country. Education of Negros in Nigeria will help in this regard. Isolating NCEF from CAN is a jihad not only to ensure division of the Body of Christ, but also to shut out the clergy from fully understanding Sharia.
Takeover of Party Politics in Nigeria
It has been very well established that Democracy and Sharia are incompatible. This is the view of many Muslim and Christian thinkers and the reason for this include the following:
- Sharia is based on the Quran (held by all Muslims to be the “uncreated” word of Allah as dictated to Mohammed), hadiths (sayings of Mohammed) and agreed interpretations. It commands Muslims to carry out jihad (holy war) indefinitely until all of the Dar al-Harb (i.e., the House of War, where Sharia is not enforced) is brought under the domination of Dar al-Islam (the House of Islam – or literally the House of Submission, where Sharia is enforced).
- Sharia dictates that non-Muslims be given three choices: convert to Islam and conform to Sharia; submit as second-class citizens (dhimmis); or be killed. Not all classes are given the second option.
- Both Islamic terrorism and pre-violent, “civilization jihad” (popularly referred to as “stealth jihad”) are commanded by Sharia. That is not only the view of “extremists” and “fringe” elements “hijacking the religion,” but of many authorities of Islam widely recognized as mainstream and drawing upon orthodox texts, interpretations and practices of the faith.
- Those who work to introduce Sharia into Nigeria including the Presidency intend to subvert and replace the Constitution Chapter II because, according to Sharia, freedom of religion, enshrined in the Constitution, and the rule of man-made law are incompatible with Islam (which means “submission”).
In the 1960 Constitution, Sharia was barely mentioned; in the 1997 and 1999, Sharia was in competition not only with Chapter II and IV of the Constitution but also in the separation of powers, principles of federalism etc. This fact led one to believe that the overthrow of Gowon in 1975 was a jihad and thereafter the conducts of some Christian Heads of State and Presidents were motivated and promoted as consequences of stealth jihad.
There are matters which the Security and Intelligence Services have, over the years, tried very hard and almost succeeded in enforcing as for example “Slander” in Sharia, whereby non-Muslims are not allowed to discuss the religion of Islam especially Sharia. There is need, in the circumstance, for the Negros and Negroids in Nigeria to enter into open conversations concerning Democracy and Sharia and without bitterness.
Cultural Interpretations in Other Regions
In 1968, Gunnar Myrdal published Asian Drama: An Inquiry into the Poverty of Nations after ten years of study of South Asia. He concluded that cultural factors, profoundly influenced by religion, are the principal obstacles to modernization. It is not just that they get in the way of entrepreneurial activity but that they permeate, rigidify, and dominate political, economic, and social behavior. --- He believes that the limited radius of identification and trust breeds corruption and nepotism. --- He concludes with a call for cultural change with government taking the lead, particularly through the educational system. A Report by Bill and Melinda Gates has called on the Nigerian Government to increase efforts to fund human capital development as this will propel Nigeria towards achieving the year 2030 Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) set by the United Nations. In June 2018, Brooking Institute reported that Nigeria had overtaken India as the country with the highest number of poor people with 87 million of its citizens in extreme poverty.
Daniel Etounga-Manguelle’s analysis of African culture in his book Culture Matters isolated the following as African traits:
- the highly centralized and vertical traditions of authority
- focus on the past and present, not the future
- rejection of "the tyranny of time"
- distaste for work ("the African works to live but doesn't live to work")
- suppression of individual initiative, achievement, and saving (the corollary is jealousy of success)
- a belief in sorcery that nurtures irrationality and fatalism [pg. 302]
It is important to conclude with respect to culture that economic development seems to bring gradual cultural changes which some traditional rulers do not approve. This makes the masses increasingly want democratic institutions and to be more supportive that these institutions are in place. The transformation is not easy or automatic. Determined elites such as those who now are the power block in Nigeria including the three arms of Government, the clergy, Christians and Muslims in conjunction with those that now control the Armed Forces and the Police are resisting the pressure for democratization by promoting Sharia as another source of legislation. With rising the level of economic development, cultural patterns emerge that are increasingly supportive of Democracy, making the masses more likely to want Democracy and more skillful in getting it. The Negros in Nigeria are ready for this not the Negroids who promote Boko Haram and Fulani herdsmen.
There is need for cultural re-structuring if the killings since 1966 are to stop and, to do this, educated Negro Nigerians must come together to demand restructuring of not only the country with the understanding that Democracy and Sharia are incompatible.
Ronald Inglehart wrote on culture and democracy thus:
- Development is linked with a syndrome of predictable changes away from absolute social norms, toward increasingly rational, tolerant, trusting, and postmodern values; and
- But culture is path dependent. The fact that a society was historically Protestant or Orthodox or Islamic or Confucian gives rise to cultural zones with highly distinctive value systems that persist when we control for the effects of economic development. ” [Culture Matters pg. 80]
You are gathered here today as the future leaders of Nigeria to change the future. We, on our part as Elders have not exhausted the past and the content of this presentation cannot be described as fable. All we are asking you to do is to plan the strategy based on your dynamic perception of the future Nigeria not as a divided country with over 300 states but a few regions. You are also to question the future as Nigeria is yearning for leadership, we can follow, a leadership that is able to resist the divide and rule policy inherited from the British by the Negroids. I assume that we all will agree with these assertions stating that:
Life is better than death
Health is better than sickness
Liberty is better than slavery
Prosperity is better than poverty
Education is better than ignorance
Justice is better than injustice; and for us Christian Elders in Nigeria
Democracy is better than Sharia
Thank you and God bless
Solomon Asemota, SAN
October 12, 2018